These are the oldest surviving poems written by the hand of a known poet. Dioscorus’s sixth-century manuscripts, with revisions and corrections, were discovered on papyrus in 1905 beneath the village of Kom Ashkaw, Egypt (ancient Aphrodito). The manuscripts are now held in museums and libraries around the world. Although Dioscorus was an Egyptian, he composed his poetry in Greek, the cultural language of the Byzantine Era. This critical edition begins with one of Dioscorus’s masterpieces: Hymn to St. Theodosius. Once considered obscure, its meaning becomes clear when seen through the lens of Byzantine spirituality.