What's New in Papyrology

Recent publications of papyri & ostraca 4th BC-8th AD; conferences, lectures etc. from Papy-L and other sources as noted. PLEASE SEND SUGGESTIONS

Tuesday, May 29, 2007

The Journal of Juristic Papyrology 36 (2006)

The Journal of Juristic Papyrology
vol. 36 (2006)

Table of Contents
here as a pdf file

“From the Editors” p. 7

Tomasz Derda
“Waterway Fayum – Alexandria. A Note on P. Lille i 1 (P. Zen. Pest., Appendix A)” p. 9

Tomasz Derda & Jacques van der Vliet
“Four Christian Funerary Inscriptions from the Fayum (I. Deir el-CAzab 1–4)” p. 21

Dorota Dzierzbicka & Adam Łajtar
„P. Vrat. inv. 2: a List of Contributions in Money“ p. 35

Włodzimierz Godlewski & Adam Łajtar
„Grave Stelae from Deir el-Naqlun“ p. 43

Nikolaos Gonis
„Oxyrynchite Villages, Men and Money“ p. 63

Piotr Hoffman & Bartek Klin
„Careful with That Computer: on Creating Maps by Multidimensional Scaling of Papyri in Katja Mueller’s Recent Studies on the Topography of the Fayum“ p. 67

Adam Łajtar
„Christian Saï in Written Records (Inscriptions and Manuscripts)“ p. 91

Adam Łajtar
„Varia Nubica x-xi“ p. 105

Tomasz Markiewicz
„Heqanakhte and the Origins of Hemiolion“ p. 125

Jacques van der Vliet
„Judas and the Stars: Philological Notes on the Newly Published Gospel of Judas (GosJud, Codex Gnosticus Maghâgha 3)“
p. 137

Uri Yiftach Firanko
„Spouses in Wills: a Diachronic Survey (III B.C.–IV A.D.)“ p. 153

Dwight W. Young
„An Edition of Two Folios from a Shenoutean Discourse against the Devil“ p. 167

Joachim Hengstl
„Juristische Literaturübersicht 1999–2001“ (Teil III) p. 189

Announcement „The Journal of Juristic Papyrology and Its Supplements“

Index of the Contents of JJP 1-31

Source: Tomasz Markiewicz, ed. (thanks)


Thursday, May 24, 2007

Draft statement of ASP Resolution Concerning the Illicit Trade in Papyri

This issue will be discussed in a plenary session at Ann Arbor Congress.

Source: ASP homepage


BASP 42 Table of Contents

The Tables of Contents for BASP 38-42 are now available at the American Society of Papyrologists website.


Tuesday, May 22, 2007

Chronique d'Égypte LXXXI (2006) - FASC. 161-162

From the website of the
Association Égyptologique Reine Élisabeth

Chronique d'Égypte


Études - Artikelen

Jean Bingen, Le contrat de nourrice P.S.A. Athen. 20 = C.P.Gr. I 26 (110 p.C.) ... 207-221 - version pdf - pdf versie

Céline Boutantin, Production de terres cuites et cultes domestiques de Memphis à l'époque impériale ... 311-334

Jean-Yves Carrez-Maratray, I. Philae I 10 et 12: encore la déesse Philométor ... 245-251

Pierre P. Koemoth, Osiris, Dionysos et le culte royal à l'île de Séhel ... 235-244

Diletta Minutoli, Iliade I 28-40 in un papiro di Narmuthis ... 201-204

Georges Nachtergael, À propos d'une épitaphe chrétienne d'Égypte et des graphies du nom Hèrakleidès ... 280-286 - version pdf - pdf versie

-, Le transfert des Hymnes d'Isidôros au Musée de Kôm Ushim (Karanis) ... 252

Klaus Parlasca, Ein Sarapistempel in Oxyrhynchos? ... 253-275

-, Zu einer Grabinschrift aus Tuna el-Gebel (IG Hermoupolis 38) ... 276-279

Hélène Perdicoyianni-Paléologou, Les verbes de connaissance dans les papyrus. Étude lexicologique ... 222-234

Rosario Pintaudi, Un'etichetta di rotolo documentario ... 205-206

Sandra Sandri, Der Kindgott im Boot. Zu einem Motiv in der gräko-ägyptischen Koroplastik ... 287-310

Papyrus littéraires et documents - Literaire papyri en dokumenten ... 335-351

Livres - Recensies ... 352-382


Étude - Artikel

Alain Martin, Dix ampoules de saint Ménas aux Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire ... 383-393 - version pdf - pdf versie

Livres - Recensies ... 394-396

Table des matières - Inhoudsopgave ... 397-400

Source AIP liens / links


Monday, May 21, 2007

Digital Classicist Work-in-Progress seminar

We now have a programme for the Digital Classicist Work-in-Progress
seminars which will be held at the Institute of Classical Studies in
London between June and August this Summer. ....


Two are notable for our field
Friday Aug 3 16:30 Melissa Terras (UCL), Can computers ever read
Ancient Texts?

Friday Aug 17 16:30 Charles Crowther (Oxford), A Virtual Research
Environment for Documents and manuscripts

Source: Digital Classicist List
Read the full message at Rogue Classicism


Sunday, May 20, 2007

P.Berl.Cohen now available

Source: Papy-L


Monday, May 14, 2007

Ann Arbor Congress: Abstracts and Program

XXV International Congress of Papyrology
July 29 - August 4 2007
The University of Michigan




EpiDoc Summer School, 11-15 June, 2007

Following on from the interest we have seen in EpiDoc training events
(including recent sessions in Rome and San Diego) and the success of the
London EpiDoc summer school over several years now, we shall be holding
another week-long workshop here at King's College London, from the
11th-15th June this year.

• The EpiDoc Guidelines provide a schema and associated tools and
recommendations for the use of XML to publish epigraphic and
papyrological texts in interchangeable format. For a fuller description
of the project and links to tools and guidelines see epidocs page.
• The Summer School will offer an in-depth introduction to the use of
XML and related technologies for publication and interchange of
epigraphic and papyrological editions.
• The event will be hosted by the Centre for Computing in the
Humanities, King's College London, which will provide the venue and
tuition. The school is free of charge, but attendees will need to fund
their own travel, accommodation, and subsistence. (There may be cheap
accommodation available through KCL; please inquire.)
• The summer school is targeted at epigraphic and papyrological scholars
(including professors, post-docs, and advanced graduate students) with
an interest and willingness to learn some of the hands-on technical
aspects necessary to run a digital project (even if they would not be
marking-up texts by hand very much themselves). Knowledge of
Greek/Latin, the Leiden Conventions and the distinctions expressed by
them, and the kinds of data and metadata that need to be recorded by
philologists and ancient historians, will be an advantage. Please
enquire if you're unsure. No particular technical expertise is required.
• Attendees will require the use of a relatively recent laptop computer
(Win XP+ or Mac OSX 10.3+), with up-to-date Java installation, and
should acquire a copy of the oXygen XML editor (educational discount and
one-month free trial available); they should also have the means to
enter Unicode Greek from the keyboard. Full technical specifications and
advice are available on request. (CCH may be able to arrange the loan of
a prepared laptop for the week; please inquire asap.)

Places on the workshop will be limited so if you are interested in
attending the summer school, or have a colleague or student who might be
interested, please contact gabriel.bodard@kcl.ac.uk as soon as possible
with a brief statement of qualifications and interest.


Dr Gabriel BODARD

Source: papy-L

Example from Vindolanda

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Saturday, May 12, 2007

BASP available online

The Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists has been the official journal of the American Society of Papyrologists since the publication of Volume 1, issue 1 in 1963 and is the only North American journal devoted to papyrology and related disciplines. full text here

Traianos Gagos (U-Mich) announced today that vol. 1-41 are now online. Macte virtute esto.

The most recent volume, 42 (2005) is exlcuded for two years (presumably from its date of publication, 2006).

See also the BASP page and the American Society of Papyrologists site.

Source: Papy-L


Thursday, May 10, 2007

REVIEW: Roger S. Bagnall, Hellenistic and Roman Egypt. Variorum Collected Studies Series

Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2007.05.16
Roger S. Bagnall, Hellenistic and Roman Egypt. Variorum Collected Studies Series. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006. Pp. 352; figs. 6. ISBN 10: 0-7546-5906-2. ISBN 13: 978-0-7546-5906-8. $114.95.
Blurb at the publisher

Reviewed by Pablo Ubierna and Diego M. Santos, Medieval Research, CONICET Buenos Aires (pabloubierna@ciudad.com.ar and diegoaug@yahoo.com.ar)
Word count: 1551 words

Table of contents

Here we have a single volume of work by Roger Bagnall in which he has, for a second time, published a collection of articles in the Variorum Series.1 These two volumes, along with the collection of articles by Sir L. Kirwan (Studies on the History of Late Antique and Christian Nubia, edited by T. Hägg, L. Török, and D. A. Websley, 2002) and by L. S. B. MacCoull (Coptic Perspectives on Late Antiquity, 1993), are the most important texts about the Nile Valley in Roman Times published by Ashgate.

The Papyrological work done by Bagnall is one of the most valuable tools for the study of Eastern Mediterranean History in Late Antiquity. This group of most valuable articles, some of them already well known to and praised by scholars interested in Roman and Byzantine Egypt, is an excellent survey of research conducted in the field over the last three decades. In this book, Bagnall's central focus is devoted to theoretical models. In his previous book on papyrology for historians2 he insisted on the importance of working with models. Articles III, VI, VIII, XVII of the present collection are all concerned with models, and are, at the same time, the most important papers in the volume. In chapter III, for example ("Evidence and models for the economy of Roman Egypt", originally published in 2005), Bagnall provides a long critical introduction to the work of M. Finley before making invaluable comments about the possibility of working with models in order to interpret the economy of Roman Egypt. According to Bagnall, historians have not yet outlined a theoretical model to interpret the economy of Roman Egypt. In contrast to Ptolemaic or Byzantine Egypt, the characteristics of the documents, and their publication, have not yet allowed for (or led to) a synthetic work. The importance of working with a theoretical model was stated by Bagnall in his book Reading Papyri, Writing Ancient History (p. 3):

historians are undoubtedly more hostile to theories of the master-explanation type than any other and with reason. There is a cogent philosophical argument, which I accept, that such substantive philosophy of history is inherent "a misconceived activity", essentially because our "knowledge of the past is significantly limited by our ignorance of the future". This sort of theory will therefore largely be left out of account here. (...) these large-scale explanations do, to my mind, have some use if deployed only as models to stimulate thinking and as source of questions, but none at all when treated like historical laws.
More at BMCR


Commentaria et Lexica Graeca in Papyris reperta (CLGP) I.I.4

Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2007.05.18
Guido Bastianini, Michael Haslam, Herwig Maehler, Franco Montanari, Cornelia E. Römer, Commentaria et Lexica Graeca in Papyris reperta (CLGP), adiuvante Marco Stroppa, Pars I: Commentaria et Lexica in auctores; vol. 1, fasc.4: Aristophanes - Bacchylides. München / Leipzig: K.G. Sauer, 2006. Pp. xxxii, 310; pls. 8. ISBN 13: 978-3-598-73054-2. €138.00.

Reviewed by William Slater, McMaster University (slaterw@mcmaster.ca)
Word count: 2483 words

The first fascicule of volume I of this series (Aeschines - Alcaeus) was reviewed favourably and at some length by Fr. Schironi in BMCR 2005.09.81; with its general tenor this reviewer is in agreement. As promised, fasc. 4 has appeared two years later, and fasc 2 and 3 of Part I.1 (Alcman - Archilochus) are promised for 2007 and 2008. Three more volumes of part I: papyrus 'commentaries and lexical notes' to specific ancient authors are scheduled, followed by II: commentaries to adespota, and III: ancient lexica and glossaries on papyrus. The overall aims and structure of CLGP set out in fasc. 1 are maintained here, and data up to late 2005 have been included, as well as photographs of unpublished papyri. The authors that appear here are Aristophanes (35 fragments); Aristotle (8); Autokleides (1); Bacchylides (7). Since Aristophanes bulks so large, the editors could rely for much of their material on the 2002 published dissertation of S. Trojahn, Die auf Papyri erhaltenen Kommentare zur alten Komödie. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der antiken Philologie. The aim is to put before scholars a ready collection of the ancient material on a solid textual basis classified by author, so that those interested in that author can have both the lemmata and ancient exegesis at hand. Since a volume of indices is planned to complete the series, each fascicule has only an index of the headings and sub-headings of the fragments, here on two unnumbered pages at the back, e.g. 9: P.Bingen 18. Note marginali a Eq. 998-1001, 1008-1012. The titles -- in German and Italian -- reveal the nature of the material, "Marginal notes to x", "Lexical notes", "Commentary on x", where one observes that the lexical notes usually are excerpted from the lexica that will be published in the 3rd volume. The exception is Bacchylides fr.3, called "Prosa mit Zitat von Bacchylides 15,56", which is too fragmentary to classify.
More at BMCR

Source BMCR


Wednesday, May 09, 2007

Melissa TERRAS, Image to Interpretation

Image to Interpretation:
An Intelligent System to Aid Historians in Reading the Vindolanda Texts

Melissa Terras

ISBN13: 9780199204557ISBN10: 0199204551 hardback, 264 pages
Dec 2006, In Stock
$95.00 (06)

Blurb from Oxford University Press:
The ink and stylus tablets discovered at the Roman fort of Vindolanda are a unique resource for scholars of ancient history. However, the stylus tablets in particular are extremely difficult to read. This book details the development of what appears to be the first system constructed to aid experts in the process of reading an ancient document, exploring the extent to which techniques from Artificial Intelligence can be used to develop a system that could aid historians in reading the stylus texts. Image to Interpretation includes a model of how experts read ancient texts, a corpora of letter forms from the Vindolanda text corpus, and a detailed description of the architecture of the system. It will be of interest to papyrologists, researchers in Roman history and palaeography, computer and engineering scientists working in the field of Artificial Intelligence and image processing, and those interested in the use of computing in the humanities.
Product Details
264 pages; 86 illus.; ISBN13: 978-0-19-920455-7ISBN10: 0-19-920455-1
About the Author(s)

Table of Contents
1. Introduction
2. How Do Papyrologists Read Ancient Texts? Knowledge Elicitation and the Papyrologist (1)
3. The Palaeography of Vindolanda. Knowledge Elicitation and the Papyrologist (2)
4. Image to Interpretation (1). Using Artificial Intelligence to Read the Vindolanda Texts , Paul Robertson (co-author)
5. Image to Interpretation (2). Results , Paul Robertson (co-author)
6. Conclusion

Melissa Terras is Lecturer in Electronic Communication, School of Library, Archive and Information Studies, University College London

Source: P. van Minnen (per email) Thanks!

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Sunday, May 06, 2007

Classic to be re-released: D.J. CRAWFORD, Kerkeosiris

An Egyptian Village in the Ptolemanic Period

Series: Cambridge Classical Studies

Dorothy J. Crawford


(ISBN-13: 9780521035859)
There was also a Hardback of this title but it is no longer available
Not yet published - available from July 2008
$45.00 (C)
A study of a small agricultural village in the Fayum as a social and economic unit towards the end of the second century BC, which was a period of civil unrest and economic disruption in Egypt. The book is based on papyrus documents from the archive of the village scribe. The archive illustrates many aspects of the village life: types of landholding and methods of cultivation, religious cults, and the names and racial distribution of the people. Where possible, Dr Crawford relates the material to the broader context of the Ptolemaic state. A special feature is the analysis of much more material into tabular form for easy reference.


List of plates; List of tables; Preface; List of abbreviations; 1. Introduction; 2. The land survey; 3. Kerkeosiris; 4. Studies in land and population A. Cleruchic land; 5. Studies in land and population B. Sacred land, cults and temples; 6. Studies in land and population C. Crown land; 7. Irrigation and agriculture; 8. Food and population; 9. Nomenclature; 10. Conclusion; Appendix; Tables; Bibliography; Indices.

Source: Papy-L

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Saturday, May 05, 2007

REVIEW (2) of Parsons, City of the Sharp-nosed Fishes

The strangely familiar world of Oxyrhynchus

Mary Beard
From the Times Literary Supplement
Peter Parsons
Greek lives in Roman Egypt
320pp. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. £25.
978 0 297 64588 7

In AD 19, the Roman prince Germanicus paid a royal visit to Alexandria in Egypt. According to a surviving papyrus record, he was given a rapturous reception by the crowds. He had hardly got through the first sentence of his speech (“I was sent by my father, gentlemen of Alexandria . . .”) when they broke into applause. And cries of “Bravo” and “Good luck” continued to punctuate his address – as he begged for a chance to be heard in peace, explained how difficult his journey had been, and how much he was missing his family in Rome (including his adopted father, the Emperor Tiberius, and his “granny”, as he affectionately called the austere – and possibly murderous – Empress Livia), and complimented his listeners on their lovely historic town. The Alexandrians probably overdid their enthusiasm. Another papyrus preserves part of the text of an edict issued by Germanicus on this same visit. The gist of it is that if they continue to treat him like a god, then he will show his displeasure by staying away and making rather fewer epiphanies in the future. more at the Association for Latin Teaching

Source: Evanagelical textual Ciritism weblog, Fri. May 4 2007

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T. DERDA, T. MARKIEWICZ, E. WIPSZYCKA edd., Alexandria: Auditoria of Kom El-dikka and Late Antique Education

Alexandria: Auditoria of Kom el-Dikka and Late Antique Education

by Tomasz Drda, Tomasz Markiewicz and Ewa Wipszycka
forthcoming (booksellers' indications to the contrary notwithstanding)
Proceedings of the conference held in spring 2005 presenting the complex of auditoria in the very centre of late antique Alexandria in its cultural and historical context. (Journal of Juristic Papyrology Supplement 8, 2007)

ISBN-13: 978-83-918250-7-5
ISBN-10: 83-918250-7-8

Hardback. Price US $107.00

From the Newletter of the POLISH CENTRE OF

Nr. 13 August 2005:
On March 16-17, the Bibliotheca Alexandrina was the site of an international colloquium
held by the Centre on “The auditoria of Kom el-Dikka in the cultural and educational life of
the late antique city”. The event, which was attended by over twenty leading authorities on
ancient education and intellectual life, was the idea of Professor Ewa Wipszycka from
Warsaw University and Professor Roger Bagnall from Columbia University. It was made
possible thanks to financial support from Professor Bagnall and a special contribution from
Warsaw University. The Société Archéologique d’Alexandrie and its President Professor
Mustafa al-Abbadi joined in the proceedings and offered a dinner party at the Pharos
University Club.

Listed as available by a number of online booksellers (Amazon, Oxbow, Blackwell ), but not on worldcat; online cv's of contributors list it as "forthcoming" e.g.
R. Cribiore, “Spaces for Teaching in Late Antiquity.” In The Auditoria at Kom el-Dikka, Journal of Juristic Papyrology, Supplement, forthcoming;
J-F Fournet , "L'enseignement des belles-lettres dans l'Alexandrie antique tardive" dans The Auditoria of Kom el-Dikka in the cultural and educational life of the late antique city: an international colloquium (sous presse)
K. Welch, "Some Architectural Prototypes for the (6th-7th c.) Auditoria of Kom el-Dikka and two earlier Comparanda from Aphrodisias in Caria" forthcoming Institute of Archaeology Warsaw University (2007)
and C. Haas "Kom el-Dikka in Context: The Auditoria and the History of Late Antique Alexandria" Journal of Juristic Papyrology (forthcoming, 2006).

Source Oxbow books;: Photo. M. Krawczyk (2004)


Friday, May 04, 2007

T. DERDA, Nomos Arsinoites: Administration of the Fayum under the Roman Rule

Nomos Arsinoites: Administration of the Fayum under the Roman Rule
by Tomasz Derda

Contents include: The place of Nomos Arsinoites in the Egyptian administrative system under the Roman rule; Nomos Arsinoites - its nomarchai, strategoi and basilikoi grammateis. The Arsinoite merides; The Arsinoite toparchies; Komogrammateiai as administrative units. Village officials (komogrammateis, presbyteroi acting as komogrammateis, amphodokomogrammateis, komarchai); Pagi in the Arsinoite nome: Unification of the administrative structures. 363p (Journal of Juristic Papyrology Supplement 7, 2006)

Source: worldcat

Aegyptus LXXXV 2005

E’ ora disponibile il volume LXXXV (gennaio – dicembre 2005) della
rivista AEGYPTUS (ISSN 0001-9046) pubblicata dalla Università Cattolica
del Sacro Cuore di Milano; pp. 381.

Il volume riporta gli

Atti del X Convegno Nazionale di Egittologia e Papirologia (Roma, 1-2 febbraio
2006) sul tema “La pratica della religione nell’antico Egitto”.

A. ROCCATI, Introduzione
La stele del ricordo
La partecipazione dell’individuo alla religione: rituali
personali tra norma e individualità
I demoni nel Libro dei Morti
Lo scongiuro: una pratica magica nei testi e nelle
iconografie delle sepolture private dell’Antico Regno
Sepolture all’interno di corti templari in Egitto: il rinnovamento del
rituale di sepoltura all’inizio del I millennio a.C.
Sul programma decorativo di un ambiente all’interno della tomba di Sheshonq (TT 27)
I Templi Solari della V Dinastia: significato e pratiche cultuali
L’accesso al tempio nel I millennio tra
linguaggio monumentale e modelli popolari M.N. SORDI, Un santuario dell’ acqua a Napata
Templi e spazi sacri nelle zone di cave e miniere: forme di adattamento all’ambiente naturale
La relazione tra dio e faraone nelle stele di Taharqo da Kawa
Statue di statue
Il significato dei santuari nei bassorilievi regali della III dinastia
I guardiani del tempio: leoni e sfingi custodi del sacro
Una statuetta della dea ippopotamo all’Università di Roma “La Sapienza”
Alessandro e l’Egitto: aspetti religiosi nell’ideologia politica
Rapporti tra Stato e Templi nell’Egitto tolemaico: alcuni esempi
In tema di clausole funerarie: osservazioni sui testamenti romani d’Egitto
Tra ascetismo e cenobitismo: gli insediamenti monastici fayyumici
La religione egizia nei frammenti dell’‘archaia’ e della ‘mese’
La diffusione dei culti egizi in Etruria meridionale e lungo la valle media del Tevere
Kôm el-Ghoraf: osservazioni per una ricostruzione storica del Delta occidentale nei periodi romano e
Gli scavi dell’Università di Bologna in Egitto: le campagne del 2005
Il monumento di Abgig: rapporto preliminare del survey fotografico (novembre 2005)

Il prossimo volume
di Aegyptus (LXXXVI, 2006) è in corso di stampa; se ne prevede l’uscita
entro il 2007.

Source: Papy-L, Archaeogate Papirologia

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Thursday, May 03, 2007

William E. Klingshirn and Linda Safran (eds.), The Early Christian Book

William E. Klingshirn and Linda Safran (eds.)
The Early Christian Book
CUA Studies in Early Christianity

From the very beginning Christianity was a religion of books—a lived, but also a written faith. The essays in this collection focus on the ways in which books were produced, used, treasured, and conceptualized in the early Christian centuries (AD 100–600). During this crucial period, just after the New Testament writings were composed, Christianity grew from the religion of a tiny minority in the eastern Roman Empire to the religion of the empire itself, and beyond. To no small extent, this success was based on the power of its books.

Written by experts in the field, the essays in this volume examine the early Christian book from a wide range of disciplines: religion, art history, history, Near Eastern studies, and classics. Topics include theories of the book, book production and use, books as sacred objects, and problems of gender, authorship, and authority.

By examining Christian books from multiple perspectives, this book invites readers into the entire “bookish” world of early Christianity: a world of writing and reading practices, of copying and exchanging texts, of persuading and debating with books, and of representing holiness and power through codices of the law, the scriptures, and the lives of the saints. Essays cover a wide geographical range and discuss texts written all across the Mediterranean world—in Greek, Latin, Coptic, Syriac, and Hebrew. All ancient texts are translated into English, some for the first time.

Intended for general readers, students, and scholars alike—anyone with a serious interest in early Christianity—this work brings together exciting currents of new research. It also opens up fresh questions and lines of inquiry in the study of this perennially important and fascinating subject.

An introduction by Philip Rousseau provides a valuable overview, followed by essays written by Daniel Boyarin, Catherine Burris, Catherine Chin, Gillian Clark, Catherine Conybeare, Kim Haines-Eitzen, Caroline Humfress, Chrysi Kotsifou, John Lowden, Claudia Rapp, Daniel Sarefield, and Mark Vessey. A comprehensive consolidated bibliography and index complete the work.

William E. Klingshirn is professor of Greek and Latin at the Catholic University of America. Linda Safran is associate professor of Fine Art at the University of Toronto.

Source: Worldcat


ADAMS, Land Transport in Roman Egypt published

Click the label below: